Terminology P


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PALPABLE TUMOR - A tumor in the prostate that can be felt during a digital rectal exam.

PARACRINE - Locally acting. For example, many growth factors act in a very local manner on the cell adjacent or closely juxtaposed to the site of their production. Paracrine actions may be directional, for example, with the signal produced in the stroma and acting on the epithelium, or they may act within a single tissue layer.

PARTIN TABLES - A set of tables published by Alan Partin from Johns Hopkins that uses preoperative PSA, Gleason score, and clinical stage to predict the pathologic stage of prostate cancer from a radical prostatectomy specimen.

PATHOLOGIST - A doctor who identifies and grades diseases, in part by studying cells and tissues under a microscope.

PCA3 - Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3, also referred to as DD3) is a gene that expresses a non-coding RNA. PCA3 is only expressed in human prostate tissue, and the gene is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer.

PELVIC - Referring to the areas of the body located below the waist and surrounded by the hip and pubic bones.

PELVIC LYMPH NODE DISSECTION - The removal of lymph nodes in the pelvic area to examine them for the presence of cancer cells.

PERINEAL - Referring to the area between the anus and scrotum that may be used as the site where a prostatectomy or brachytherapy will be performed.

PERIPHERAL ZONE (PZ) - Outer area of prostate where over 80% of prostate cancers originate.

PEYRONIE’S DISEASE (PZ) - scar tissue build up inside the penis causing curvature, narrowing or shortening of an erect penis.

PLACEBO - An inactive substance, used as a control, which may resemble a medication that is being evaluated for its treatment effectiveness in a clinical trial.

POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) - Experimental technique used to amplify DNA.

POSITIVE PREDICTIVE VALUE (PPV) - Proportion of true positive tests when a modality gives a positive test result.

PRIAPISM - Prolonged and often painful penile erections not associated with sexual stimulation.

PROGNOSIS - A judgment made about the course of a disease and/or the probable outcome of its treatment.

PROLARIS® assay from Myriad Genetics is a genetic test performed with tissue obtained either from a biopsy or prostatectomy that measures how aggressive a cancer is likely to be.

PROSTASCINT® - A monoclonal antibody imaging study used to detect prostate cancer cells throughout the soft tissues of the body.

PROSTATE - A gland, part of the male reproductive system and located below the bladder, which produces fluid for the semen that carries sperm cells.

PROSTATE CANCER - Cancer involving the prostate gland; the cause of prostate cancer remains unknown

PROSTATE GLAND - A gland in the male which surrounds the neck of the bladder and urethra. The prostate contributes to the seminal fluid.

PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (PSA) - A protein produced by the prostate gland; its level can be determined by a blood test. The PSA test scores can be used to help detect prostate cancer, estimate the extent of the cancer, and monitor the results of the treatment(s) for the cancer.

PROSTATE SPECIFIC MEMBRANE ANTIGEN - An antigen present on the cell membrane of prostatic epithelial cells.

PROSTATECTOMY - Removal of the protate.

PROSTATIC ACID PHOSPHATASE (PAP) - An enzyme produced by the prostate gland. Changes in its level in the blood may help detect changes in the extent and nature of the prostate cancer.

PROSTATIC INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA (PIN) - A precancerous lesion of the prostate that often accompanies prostatic cancer.

PROTEIN - Any of a group of complex organic compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Proteins are made of amino acids.

PYELOPLASTY - Repair of ureteropelvic junction obstruction.