Terminology S


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SALVAGE - Used to describe a procedure that is performed following a previously unsuccessful procedure.

SCREENING - The use of different tests and/or examinations to detect the presence of cancer or other diseases at early stages.

SCROTUM - The external sac or pouch that contains the testes.

SELENIUM - A nonmetallic element. Selenium levels may influence the growth of prostate cancer cells.

SEMEN - The fluid that is released through the penis during orgasm. Semen is made up of sperm from the testicles and fluid from the prostate and seminal vesicles.

SEMINAL VESICLES - Pouch–like organs located above the prostate that produce and store seminal fluid.

SENSITIVITY - Proportion of positive test results when a specific finding is truly present in a population.

SIDE EFFECT - A secondary and usually negative effect from a drug or procedure used to treat a disease.

SOUTHERN BLOT - An experimental technique designed to identify and quantitate DNA.

SPECIFICITY - Proportion of negative test results when a specific finding is truly absent in a population.

STAGE AND STAGING - Stage is a term used to describe the size and extent of a cancer and whether it has progressed throughout the body. Staging refers to the tests and examinations done to determine the stage.

STANDARD TREATMENT - A treatment or other intervention currently being used and considered to be of proven effectiveness on the basis of past studies.

STROMA - Adult connective tissue, which forms the structure of organs. In the case of most visceral organs, including the prostate, the stroma is composed predominantly of smooth muscle with a fibroblastic component.

SYSTEMIC THERAPY - Treatment that attempts to reach and affect cancer cells all over the body.